Prelude # 2

  • Date/time:
    Wednesday, May 5, 2021, 3.00pm to 5.30pm CET (Berlin time zone); via Zoom 
  • Title:
    The combined use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA)
  • Instructors:
    Nicole F. Richter (University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark) and
    Sven Hauff (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg, Germany) 

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Necessity thinking is relevant in many fields of research reflected in formulations such as "A is a necessary condition for B", "B requires A" and alike. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) offers a tool to identify these necessary conditions, and therewith can complement a traditional PLS-SEM model by identifying the must have factors relevant for an outcome to materialize.

This workshop will provide an introduction to NCA: We will focus on the foundations of the method and its application in research. Furthermore, we will introduce the combined use of PLS-SEM with NCA including relevant guidelines, an illustrative example, and insights into sources to practically apply both methods. 


Wednesday, May 5, 2021, 3.00pm to 5.30pm CET (Berlin time zone); via Zoom


Please register before May 2, 2021.

Nicole Franziska Richter 

Nicole is an Associate Professor of International Business at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU). Her research involves mostly quantitative empirical analyses of determinants of success in different subdomains of IB research. Furthermore, she has published several articles with a focus on PLS-SEM and is an ambassador for NCA. 

For more information see: 

Sven Hauff

Sven is Professor of Human Resource Management and head of the Chair of Labor, Human Resources and Organization at the Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg. His main research interests are in the interrelationships between the design of human resource management and its effects on employees and organizational performance. His research is characterized by a quantitative empirical focus and a strong interest in research methodologies, including PLS-SEM and NCA.

For more information see:


Dul, J. (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA): Logic and methodology of “necessary but not sufficient” causality, Organizational Research Methods, 19, 10-52.

Richter, N.F., Schubring, S., Hauff, S., Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., 2020. When predictors of outcomes are necessary: Guidelines for the combined use of PLS-SEM and NCA. Industrial Management & Data Systems 120, 2243-2267.